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Fieldwork: The Langtang Survivors Fund, The Ruins of Palmyra, and the Role of the Archaeologist in the Present

31 May

As a subscriber of the University of York’s round-up of Mesolithic archaeological news, in the form of the Mesolithic Miscellany Monthly newsletter, it was with surprise and sadness that I came across a first hand account of the earthquake that hit Nepal in late April of this year.  University of York researchers Hayley Saul and Emma Waterton were a part of an archaeological field team conducting work in Nepal, based at the Himalayan village of Langtang, which is north of the Kathmandu valley, when the main 7.8 magnitude earthquake struck the country on Saturday 25th of April.

The field team had left their base at village of Langtang a mere two hours before the quake struck and managed to survive the initial event and the aftershocks with the help of their guides.  Unfortunately, after an arduous and nerve-wracking trek to an evacuation point, they heard the news that the village of Langtang had been destroyed by the avalanches and subsequent landslides as a result of the initial quake and the aftershocks. The small population had been almost entirely killed, with almost every building standing having been flattened from the force of the landslide (see BBC, Reuters & Nepali Times).

Langtang_village

Before the earthquake and landslide. The Langtang village in the Langtang National Park, located in northern Nepal close to the border with Tibet. The village was popular with travellers and winter sport enthusiasts. Image credit: Yosarian via Wikipedia.

Hayley and Emma are helping to raise funds via their Just Giving webpage for the Langtang Survivors Fund, which will go directly towards those who survived the quake and helped guide Hayley, Emma and others on the trek to safety, to help re-build their lives after losing family, friends, their homes and their way of life.  The Nepal earthquake, called Gorkha, that rocked the country and surrounding areas at the end of April of this year, have devastated the Himalayan country.  The main quake and its after shocks, which have continued into May, have killed many in the country (current estimates are at over 7,000 individuals, with many more injured) and has left both the population and its many villages, towns and cities in dire straits and in need of medical aid, food and shelter.

Langtang and Himalayan Culture

The small village of Langtang, in the Bagmati zone in northern Nepal, sits within a national park of some splendour, acting as a starting point for tourists to explore the Himalayan mountain range in the north of Nepal.  Home to around 540 people, the village was a popular destination for tourists visiting the country and hoping to get a glance of the Himalayan mountain range and the Nepalese way of life.  The village catered for the tourists by having almost 55 places to stay, with many of these hotels being  family ran business which catered for the guests.  The Himalayan mountain range is home to a delicate ecosystem and the range has managed to shape the cultures in the countries that share them profoundly, both in their religious worldview (the peaks being sacred to Buddhism and Hinduism) and in their adaptive lifestyle to a harsh environment.

Home to the highest peak on earth, Mount Everest, the Himalayans have also been an area of intense interest to explorers from around the world for decades.  An area of outstanding beauty, it is also an area of tense international pressure with both the countries bordering the Peoples Republic of China’s eastern border and the abuse of the mountain guides (normally the Sherpa people drawn from the upper Himalayan range) causing international ire.  For instance, Tibet, home of the exiled Dalai Lama, is host to many Buddhist monasteries which have seen a relatively severe clampdown on by Chinese authorities following the 1959 Tibetan uprising starting in the capital of Lhasa.  As such the value of cultural heritage is richly viewed as having an important part to play in the formation of identity for the countries that share the Himalayan mountain range.

Since the earthquake, landslides and the subsequent and enormous damage done to villages like Langtang and cities such as Kathmandu, there have been reports of artefact and heritage looting in Nepal.  The Saving Antiquities for Everyone (SAFE) organisation have highlighted the effect that the selling of artefacts after the earthquake helps to further strip the identity and national heritage of the country and urges individuals and organisations not to buy these artefacts.  Nepal has suffered greatly from the natural disaster, as it is a country that relies heavily on tourism and it has been hit hard by the earthquake and subsequent aftershocks.  It is hoped that the sale of its richly historical artefacts, although for reasons understandable, slowly trickles to an end in order to help rebuild the parts of the country affected.  As SAFE highlight, the cultural heritage of a country is a non-renewable resource.  Nepal relies on both its natural beauty and its rich history and culture for its economy.  To destroy that would be to wound it twice.

Palmyra: Blood on the Land

In other news the extremist group Islamic State (otherwise known as Da’ish, Da’eesh ISIS, ISIL) have recently taken the city of Palmyra in Syria from the hands of Syria’s ruler Bashar Al-Assad’s army, taking both the infamous Tadmor prison and the ancient city of Palmyra itself in the bargain.  The modern town of Palmyra lies on a strategically important location between the capital of Damascus and the eastern city of Deir al-Zeir (BBC), and represents an important symbolic gain in a country where Palmyra is held up as a UNESCO world heritage site of international importance.  Furthermore it is close to oil and gas fields which help supply the western cities still under control by Al-Assad.  The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights has consistently reported on the conflict in Syria, both on the appallingly violence employed by each of the factions fighting in the country.

BenPalmyra

The massive Roman tetrapylon at the historic site of Palmyra, which acted as a monument generally built near crossroads. The ancient city of Palmyra has a particularly rich and diverse history, of which it’s Roman side was but just one. The ruins of the site are mostly architectural in nature, but do include exquisite examples of a distinct city culture, unique in the Middle East. Image credit: courtesy of Ben Wheatley.

Born out of the 2010-2011 Arabic Spring demonstrations across north Africa and the Middle East, the ongoing Syrian Civil War has led to a fragmentation of both Syria and Iraq, where numerous factions fight a bloody, tense long game of attrition.  Since the start of the civil war there is now currently a total of 7.6 million people who have been displaced within Syria, 220,000 killed since the start of the violence, and a further 3.9 million Syrians living as refugees in neighbouring countries (source).

The so-called Islamic State, a self-styled Islamic caliphate, has become one of the prime contenders for power in the region.  Controlling almost 50% of the land mass of Syria (but not some of major eastern cities) and large chunks of Iraq, the group has thrived on its propaganda to spread its message of intolerance and violence.  Chief among these are the both the show and summary executions carried out in the provinces it controls and, secondly, its wanton destruction of the heritage.  This destruction and the selling of looted artefacts, largely of pre-Islamic art and architecture (particularly any images of the body which the group claims is idolatry) and Shia mosques (the Shrine of Jonah/Mosque of Yunis in Nineveh, for example), is justified by their strict adherence to their view of Sunni Islam.

It is this destruction of heritage that has many worried in the world as the group currently controls Palmyra.  Already news has filtered in of the possible destruction of the 1st century lion (Al-Assad name, the incumbent leader of Syria, means Lion in arabic) and of a bloody retribution in the form of executions of police and army forces and civilians throughout the modern and ancient city.  This follows IS’s form from previous takeovers of cultural heritage sites, such as the unique archaeological sites of Nimrud and Hatra, where they have actively destroyed large parts of the above-ground sites.

There has also been recent news regarding the destruction of a vitally important Mosul Central Library in the Iraq, following the desecration of the main museum.  There is a stark difficulty in attaining reliable sources within IS controlled territory however, as the group fiercely control what and how they show their effect on both the population and territories under their control.  What is clear however is that Islamic State profit hugely by the selling of stolen antiquities on the black market, which helps fund their campaign of terror and slaughter.

It is worth pointing out here the difficulties in finding reliable sources within Syria on the cultural heritage destruction currently taking place throughout the country.  Nor is it just IS who are carrying out the looting and destruction on heritage sites and museums in Syria, but also parts of the Syrian army and other factions fighting in the country.  I advise readers who want to keep informed and up to date to check out Sam Hardy’s blog Conflict Heritage, where many of his posts explicitly detail what is known and what is unknown about the situation in both Palmyra and Syria at large. This post is a good start.

Yet it is not just heritage that faces the wrath of the numerous factions fighting in Syria and Iraq.  Medécins Sans Frontiéres (MSF, otherwise known as Doctors Without Borders), an impartial independent organisation that helps medical aid where it is most needed, have repeatedly warned of the violence that medical staff in the country face, both from the government and from the opposition forces.  This is partly targeted attacks against medical staff and civilians.  Operating in clandestine situations, the organisation and it’s staff have also faced sustained violence and intimidation, even whilst trying to give aid to individuals who need it.

Fieldwork Thoughts

The role of the archaeologist in the field, either during commercial (or CRM) work or during research fieldwork is primarily to collect data, often through a combination of surveying, excavation and/or collating samples for analysis.  The role of academic fieldwork where the pace can, at times, be more relaxed, also allows for a greater integration into the everyday life of the people who you may be based with or around.  Although there is a caveat to this in the fact that some fieldwork takes place in remote, inaccessible locations, a good many field work projects could only take place with the help, aid and friendship of various organisations and individuals.

As Hayley and Emma attest in their vivid recollection of quake, this was the case at Langtang.  It was with the help and dedication of their hosts in Nepal that they have had many succesful seasons of fieldwork at Langtang and that they, and their co-workers, had become deeply involved with life at Langtang.  This has involved getting to know the guides personally and meeting their extended family members, alongside taking an active interest within the daily life at Langtang.

Palmyra represents the possible (until there is firm evidence of destruction this website will not indulge in becoming a mouthpiece of propaganda) destruction of heritage that plays a vitally important part in the identity and self of sense in Syria.  As a BBC article highlights  that:

it must be remembered that there are rarely mutually exclusive choices here. The loss of Syria’s cultural heritage represents the loss of far more than some tourist attractions – it is the loss of connection between multiple generations” (source).

Further to this the repercussions of the ongoing conflict in Syria and Iraq, and the lack of any in-depth will by international partners to aid and stabilize the countries, could have serious geopolitical consequences on the world stage amongst the international community.

As archaeologists we know that the past and the present are intimately linked by cultural bonds and values that help transcend history, and help inform identity and actions today.  As such, and as a discipline, we would be remiss to conduct our fieldwork without knowledge of the environment in which we work.  Finally, we must ask ourselves what is heritage without the people?

Further Information

  • The Just Giving page for the Langtang Survivors Fund, and the first hand account of the devastation, can be found here.  Donations are still welcome.  The funds raised by Hayley Saul and Emma Waterton are to be given to the Community Action Nepal charity, who are based in Kathmandu, in memory of the many friends that both Hayley and Emma made at the village of Langtang during their fieldwork seasons.  The UK-based Disaster Emergency Committee (DEC), who bring together 13 charities, has also launched an appeal.  You find out more and donate here.
  • Medicéns Sans Frontiéres help distribute and organise medical aid around the world, particularly in hard to reach areas.  They often operate in situations deemed too dangerous by many aid organisations.  The organisation is impartial, neutral and independent, and helps respond to both natural and man-made disasters.  They regularly operate in dangerous climates where other aid organisations will not work in and have been instrumental in helping to contain the recent Ebola outbreak in parts of western Africa.  You can help support their important work here.
  • The Mesolithic Miscellany site started out as a journal although this has somewhat petered out within recent years – back editions of the journal are available on their website however.  The Mesolithic Miscellany Monthly newsletter is very active though and advertises recently published articles, edited volumes or books on Mesolithic archaeology.  You can subscribe for free here.
  • The Saving Antiquities for Everyone organisation homepage can be found here.  The non-profit organisation helps highlight cultural destruction from around the globe and carry out both research and fieldwork.  The wide range of the campaigns that it carries out, in places such as Haiti and Kashgar alongside general advocacy, can be found here.
  • Conflict Antiquities, a blog ran by Dr Sam Hardy, regularly provides accurate information on the destruction carried out by IS and the various factions fighting in Syria and Iraq.  The site also thoroughly documents examples of conflict antiquities and cultural destruction from around the world.
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The Value of CARA & Scholars At Risk Network

7 Jan

In the December entry for the blogging carnival (the good, bad and ugly of archaeology blogging) I mentioned the Scholars At Risk Network, after learning about the network from Sam Hardy over at [Un]Free Archaeology.  As a direct result of my mention of them in my blog post another great blogger, Loretta Kilroe, brought to my attention CARA, the Council for Assisting Refugee Academics.

I think it is time to dig a bit deeper to highlight these two fantastic organisations in the work that they do and why they are needed.  Too often in the online blogging community we espouse the knowledge of others and thank the wonders of the internet for bringing everyone together when only an estimated 34-39% of the earth’s population have access to the internet.  We have to realize that many academics today still face being severely curtailed in pursing their research topics or face other consequences (imprisonment/torture) because of political oppression, rife censorship or imposed sanctions in variety of countries world wide.

CARA

CARA’s underlining approach and mission statement is simple:

“Academic Freedom is the principle which underpins and informs CARA’s work defending the right of individuals to explore the world of ideas, literature and science unfettered by political, social or religious oppression, censorship, or sanction” (Source).

Cara

The banner of the CARA site highlighting one issue that often stops refugees (Image credit: source).

The council was originally founded in 1933 by William Beveridge to assist other scholars after he learnt of the displacement of academics from Nazi Germany on racial and/or political grounds and subsequently launched a rescue operation.  The organisation continued to grow throughout the next 70 years, helping out academics not just during the Second World War but also during the repressive Stalinist period in Russia, the unrest in the Middle East and throughout the South African Apartheid period.  Today it’s focus has shifted towards the Middle East, with a particular focus on Iraq, and to certain areas of the African continent.  Although not initially called CARA, the organisation changed it’s name in 1999 to it’s present name as a reflection of it’s world wide operational basis.

CARA are currently running three programmes at the moment in the UK, the Middle East and Zimbabwe.  The United Kingdom program offers, and provides, assistance to “enable persecuted academics  many of whom are refugees and asylum seekers, to return to academia or an allied profession in the UK at a level commensurate with their skills and experience” (source).  The Middle East program is centered on Iraq and Syria, helping academics that have either settled in the UK as a result of conflict or those that are still living in Syria or Iraq.  The Iraq program was launched in 2006 as a direct result of the rise in kidnappings of academics in the country and the continued killings of civilians in the country.  The Syria program was founded as a result of the grim situation that has developed in the country over the past two years.

CARA is helping academics both in Syria, and those that have fled to the surrounding countries and the UK, by providing practical advice on survival and academic help.  The Zimbabwe program was set up in 2009 in response to the flood of academics feeling the country.  Importantly the program also aims to stifle the dramatic decline in quality of the higher education in the country, where it can.  A number of reports on these programs, and others conducted by the organisation, can be found on the CARA site.

Scholars At Risk Network

Scholars at Risk Network (SAR) hold much the same values as CARA in the belief that their work is grounded in the principle of academic freedom, that is the freedom to pursue academic research without fear of censorship, intimidation, fear of violence or of discrimination.  The network organisation has its initial roots in the Human Rights program at the University of Chicago in 1999, and it quickly grew to join other international education and academic advocacy groups within a few short years of its founding.

In particular the SAR network has joined forces with the Institute for International Education in helping to offer an endowed rescue fund to help scholars and academics who are in perilous situations.  Moving it’s base to New York University in 2003, SAR has continued to provide funds for scholars as well as participating in a broad range of advocacy work in centers across the world.  This has been reinforced by SAR developing partner networks across Europe, the Middle East and Africa during the last decade or so.  Further information on SAR’s history can be found here.

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Personal freedom is often underrated until you realise what it is like being able to freely express yourself (Image credit: source).

SAR’s first and foremost task is protecting scholars by arranging positions of sanctuary and safety, often offered as one semester or one year long positions as academic posts at host universities.  Further to this, the network also runs a Scholars-In-Prison project designed to protect scholars who are unable to leave their home countries, as well as keeping an active up -to-date record on attacks and widespread threats to individuals, departments and institutions.  Secondly, the SAR network runs workshops and training sessions as a part of its active outreach work, as well as circulating monitor reports highlighting the recent developments in the root causes of intellectual repression.  Find out more here.

Why Is It Important?

It is vitally important to always resist the powers that seek to limit the intellectual and individual freedom.  Knowledge, invention and imagination are the three crucial foundations for thought that are expressed in higher education and the academic environment.  The persecution, suppression or imprisonment of academics happens for a variety of reasons and I must point out here that I do no ignore the general population at the expense of the academic.  Rather it is due to my passion and experience of higher education that I have wrote about CARA and the SAR network, that this blog is, for me, the ideal venue to help raise awareness of these two fantastic organisations.  Sadly these organisations are necessary in the modern world, very necessary.

The world of higher education is a wonderfully mixed and diverse one where no two people are ever the same and may have strong views and opinions.  It is, like archaeology itself, a very fluid environment in which individuals come and go.  Universities have the strong focused economic base in the areas where they are situated but they operate in a myriad of professional and social entanglements, often crossing borders around the world with research projects, societies and professional links.  If one scholar cannot offer a hand to another in need then that is a very sad world indeed, especially when the binding force of academia is co-operation.

…And Introducing Médecins Sans Frontiéres

Further to the above two organisations that support academics in need I would also heartily recommend supporting Médecins Sans Frontiéres (MSF, otherwise known as Doctors Without Borders).  Established in 1971 and currently working in over 60 countries worldwide, Médecins Sans Frontiéres has provided medical aid to millions of people during its history whilst remaining an independent organisation which is run and and owned by staff both present and past.  With over 90% of its income coming from individual donors MSF maintains the ability to be an neutral and independent organisation, able to help sick and injured people worldwide independent of national boundaries, institutions or governments regardless of gender, race or religion.  It is also a transparent worldwide organisation, which is split into a number of associations and sections.

The organisation works in a variety of crisis environments (including armed conflicts, epidemics and disease outbreaks, environmental disasters, exodus of refugees or helping people who are excluded from healthcare) by helping to establish centers of treatment.  In a number of cases they have to be clandestine operations to protect the patients and MSF staff from harm and violence in unstable environments, such as in Syria currently for example.

Further to this MSF also carry out medical research to help produce the best results for helping their patients and to help future humanitarian missions.  As a part of this they allow the research produced to be freely accessible to anyone.  I personally have supported this charity in the past (and continue to when I can) because I cannot imagine what my life would be like if the medical facilities for treating my previous fractures were non-existent: I realise I am lucky to have access to such good healthcare.  In short it is also my way of saying thank you.  You can also donate or apply to join MSF during operations if you have a medical background.  You can support MSF here!

The Changing Role of Freedom

23 Feb

‘Our mission is to report these horrors of war with accuracy and without prejudice’- Marie Colvin.

Remi Ochlik in Cairo 2011.

Role of the Archaeologist

Archaeologists, be it field or institution based, never work alone in a vacuum.  A prevailing movement in the past few decades throughout the ivory towers of academia is the continued outreach and inclusion of the wider community in archaeological and cultural projects, to include others in their own exploration and documentation of heritage.  Of course, throughout the entire history of archaeological excavation manpower has always been needed, but its the recent tailoring and inclusion of local community groups with wider academic led projects that have led to a greater dissemination of  information to a broader group then ever before.

This is especially so in the age of the internet where even the individual can provide knowledge to a diverse and inclusive audience.  Archaeologists regularly dig up burials, sites, and cities who are separated vastly in time or cultural practices to our own.  Often excavations take place in far off lands and cultures different form our own, and we must be mindful of who we represent, what cultural we are working under and be aware of news at all times.  Sometimes archaeologists do not come off so well.

However, sometimes the wider world interjects.  Archaeological projects in Syria have largely stopped, especially foreign academic led excavations, with the on-going atrocities led by the Assad government continuing unimpeded.  This is a wider part of the Arab Spring, which has gripped a number of middle eastern countries, and has led to dramatic changes in various countries (i.e. Tunisia, Egypt & Libya).  The current violence seen in Syria has been ongoing for nearly a year.

Freedom: What Does It Mean?

Having recently finished the novel Freedom by Jonathan Franzen, I am struck by the very word of the title.  What does freedom mean?  How can it be construed, used and abused?

In America, the current campaigning by the Republican presidential candidates talk constantly about personal liberty, of the intrusion of the big government in every aspect of their citizens lives, whilst also campaigning viciously for  the rights of stricter birth control legislation alongside much stricter abortion rules.  Over in Britain, Scotland’s First Minister Alex Salmond calls for Scotland to leave the United Kingdom, and secede from the Union.  Proposed upheavals in the NHS and the way in which welfare (both disability, long term sickness and jobseekers) is distributed and denominated is causing rife consternation in the social impacts of such laws.  The sex slave trade throughout Europe or forced labour in South America is still rife, denying the personal freedoms of that person, trapped within a wider web of anonymity, abuse and social deference.  Tension is racketing up on Iran, the US and her allies (namely Israel) want to dissuade Tehran from acquiring the nuclear bomb, whilst Britain and Argentina fire lexical broadsides at each other over the Falkands (or Malvinas) Islands, and Syria continues to pound its own civilians into bloody pulps.

Yes, freedom has been on my mind.  As I wrote about Tim Hethrington and Chris Hondros deaths in Libya last April, I felt that they were killed pursuing not just a passion, but a necessity.  They both documented not what the world wanted to see, but what the world had to see.  Now our scope has moved to Syria, where today the senior Sunday Times journalist Marie Colvin and distinguished French photographer Remi Ochlik where killed covering the uprising and continuing bloody civil war.  Disturbing footage of the attack of the civilians in the Syrian city of Homs can be seen here, as can the shots fired from snipers, aiming at anyone – be it man, woman or child, who dares venture out into the open.

The denial of healthcare, arbitary killing of medical staff, summary executions and relentless aerial bombing of civilian homes is ongoing.  Make no mistake, this is a bloody civil war with no quarter given by Assad’s forces or by the numerous factions fighting within Syria.  It is a curious thing, but now that foreign civilians are being targeted and killed by the Assad government, the world has taken a stronger view towards Syria’s ruler (see this article here in the Telegraph).  One is often forced to question that is seems to almost not matter when civilians are targeted in some far off situation, but when Western affairs conflate then something has to give.  Freedom always comes at a cost, but it is the reaction of the Syria’s ruler, and of the world at large, as to what exactly that cost will be.

The capacity for man to harm man seems to know no bounds.

Points of Call

The following are organisations that are doing vital work in a number of dangerous and critical situations throughout the world in which people need desperate help.  I would heavily advise at least tacitly supporting one or more of the organisations.  The Disaster Emergency Commission provide vital healthcare at a moments notice, often following tsunami’s or earthquakes.  Médecins Sans Frontieres provides healthcare and emergency treatment in countries and areas directly affected by systematic violence or danger, in countries where there is continuing instability.

Amnesty International campaign on a number of key issues and stand up for human rights worldwide. Avaaz are a people powered community with an impressive record of drawing key government attention to a worldwide range of campaigns, from investigations into internet censorship to amazon devastation.  Anti-Slavery is a site with reports on various countries, alongside the  definitions of the different types of slavery that happens on a shockingly massive industrial scale today in the world.   Unicef  is the UN’s arm involved with children and improving worldwide children’s health.  My friend’s blog, The Activist, is a fountain of wealth regarding human rights abuses around the world, and has links to many important sites of certified information.  Wikileaks releases vital information to acknowledge what many in the position of power do not.

26/02/12 Update

An interesting opinion article on the Republican primaries by Laurie Penny.  Over at Ancient Bodies, Ancient Lives,  Professor Rosemary Joyce has a detailed post on the anthropological and historical meaning of the debatable term ‘marriage‘, with regards to an American Senator’s comment.

With regards to the Falklands, there is this frankly ridiculous statement by Lord West that a reduction in foreign aid, alongside ‘minimal’ cuts to the NHS and Welfare spending, would help the Falklands defend themselves.  At a time when the NHS is seemingly on the verge of disappearing as we know it, and not for the better, this is a worrying statement.

Also new article on Syria from The Activist, and a opinion piece in the Telegraph– “Colvin bravely realised the importance of providing a window on the wider world, through which individuals might be moved to effect change”.

RIP Tim Hetherington & Chris Hondros

22 Apr

Photograph By Tim Hetherington.

Today I read the obituary of Tim Hetherington, a renowned photojournalist who was recently killed, alongside the photographer Chris Hondros, by mortar rounds in Misurata, in the ongoing conflict in Libya a few days ago.  His obituary in The Daily Telegraph can be found here, and his obituary on the Human Rights Watch website can be found here.

Chad Soldiers Near Sudanese Border (Hetherington 2006).

As I read about his journalistic work covering conflicts, recording people’s stories and the unrest in countries such as Nigeria, Chad, Libya, Afghanistan, Darfur and Liberia amongst others, I recognised his work.  I had watched Restrepo, his and Sebastian Junger’s film about US soldiers deployed in Afghanistan.  His work has helped to spark international outrage over Liberia’s civil war and the atrocities carried out by Charles Taylor, which has helped to inform Western audiences.  He will also be remembered for his dedicated work with Human Rights Watch.

It is important that we do not forget that whilst he was objective in his work and compassionate in his outlook, Hetherington also worked and helped support various charities that tried to make a difference for the hard hit people he documented.

As journalists document the world around them, archaeologists document the world before them.  However archaeologists are not immune from what goes around them.  We, too, live in the present.  We do not just deal in the past.  Although we uncover and investigate artefacts and cultures, we also use multidisciplinary approaches in our work.  We use ethnographic evidence from a wide range of nations, we participate with research groups from other countries, we compile evidence and hold discussions worldwide.  One way in which we can become involved is through groups such as this University of Sheffield Archaeologists for Justice.

This is the world we live in.  We can help to make an informed decision.  There is a variety of blogs (The Activist), newspapers, magazine and television programs (Unreported World strand) that help to highlight injustice in the world, and more importantly what we can do as individuals or groups to help change.

You too can help by sponsoring or donating money to a number of important charities.  I have named a few in the blog roll below, here are a few more:

The Avaaz- The World In Action site directly provides the people with a voice on matters worldwide, from a world-wide community.  Medecins Sans Frontieres are a charity that support doctors and provide medical supplies to various poverty & war stricken nations across the world.  The Disaster Emergency Committee provide vital care and aid to countries that have to cope with natural disaster aftermaths, both in the long-term and the short-term.  Unicef is the United Nations arm that help to provide care and attention to children throughout the world.  The Anti-Slavery charity website help investigate, report and help people recuperate worldwide from the effects of modern-day slavery.  This is involves sex slavery, child slavery & forced labour in a variety of countries.