Marit Van Cant is a PhD-fellow for the Research Foundation Flanders (FWO), and in a joint PhD between the Free University of Brussels (VUB, Belgium) and the University of Sheffield (UK). She completed her Master’s Degree in Archaeology at the VUB in 2012. Since 2010 she has been specialising in human osteology by participating in several key courses at the Leiden University Medical Center (LUMC) and Leiden University (The Netherlands), and also in the MSc in Human Osteology and Funerary Archaeology at the University of Sheffield as a part of the European Union Erasmus exchange programme in 2011. Approaching the final stage of her PhD thesis, Marit has been appointed as Student Representative of the Society for Medieval Archaeology in 2016-2017, for which she has organised its annual Student Colloquium in Brussels, the first time that the event took place outside the UK.
Dr. Davina Craps, finished her doctoral degree at Durham University in 2015 and specialises in palaeopathology (the study of disease in the past), with a research focus on rheumatology. She completed her undergraduate studies at the Free University of Brussels (VUB) and went on to get Master’s degrees specializing in osteology, anatomy, funerary archaeology, eastern Mediterranean archaeology and palaeopathology from the Catholic University Leuven (Belgium), the University of Sheffield (UK), and Durham University (UK). She is currently applying for postdoctoral funding, and runs her own freelance osteology company called Osteoarc, which specialises in the analysis and assessment of human skeletal remains from archaeological contexts for commercial units and museums.
Hélène Déom undertook a Master’s degree in Archaeology at the Catholic University of Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium) then another Master’s degree in Human Osteology and Funerary Practices at the University of Sheffield (UK). During her studies, she specialised in prehistoric burials from Belgium and England. After graduation in 2014, she started to work for archaeologists from the Public Service of Wallonia (SPW), examining skeletons excavated from medieval parish cemeteries. She’s been working freelance since 2015 under the name of TIBIA, which specialises in the analysis of human skeletal remains from archaeological contexts.
These Bones of Mine (TBOM): Hello Marit, thank you for joining me at These Bones of Mine! I know you, of course, from my time at the University of Sheffield a few years ago but since then you have been working on your PhD, alternating between the University of Sheffield, in England, and Free University of Brussels, in Belgium. How is your research going? And how did you become involved in helping to set up Belgian Osteoarchaeology and Physical Anthropology Society (BOAPAS)?
Marit Van Cant (MCV): Hi David! Indeed a while ago – besides the several times we met at conferences, remember the Society of American Archaeology 2015 annual meeting in San Francisco where I had the privilege to listen to your nice talk on the public importance of communicating bioarchaeology of care research (and not to mention the famous Vesuvio Cafe we frequented afterwards!). Time flies indeed since we both studied together at the University of Sheffield!
I am currently in the writing up stage of my PhD research, which is about the skeletal analysis of rural and small urban sites, mainly in Flanders, and one rural site from the United Kingdom. Besides the general health status, I’ll look at entheseal changes on both inter- and intra-population level, and the impact of occupational activities and the environment on these populations, in conjunction with archaeological and historical sources. But, enough said of this project – I would like to defend my PhD by the end of this year! – and this interview is all about BOAPAS, right?
So, this is how it all started: In October 2015, I was asked to give a presentation at the Dead Men Talking Symposium in Koksijde, Belgium, on the state of the art of osteological research in Flanders.
It was clear that, not only in Flanders, but also in Wallonia, (I will not dwell on details of the complex political situation in Belgium, but briefly: Flanders is the Dutch speaking part, and they speak mainly French in Wallonia), many young (and less young) researchers in bone studies are forced to study abroad, such as in the United Kingdom, in France, or in The Netherlands. Although we do have many skeletal remains in Belgium, previously excavated or even to be uncovered in the (near) future, there is currently no clear overview of which skeletal collection is yet to be studied, or of the depository this bone material is stored at.
So, me and three other participants at the conference, Hélène Déom, Davina Craps and Marieke Gernay, decided to gather not only all osteologists (human bone specialists and archaeozoologists) in Belgium, but also employees working in heritage agencies, museums and archaeologists (both contractors, including commercial and academic researcher and lecturers) in order to provide a platform for everyone working with osteological material from archaeological contexts.
We started with an announcement and a mailing list at this conference, and collected the contact details of c. 30 people on that day. We created a mail address, which was still called Belgian Osteological Research group as we hadn’t decided on the name of our society yet! Our next step was to announce our first meeting. This was organised on February 27th 2016 in the small auditorium of the Royal Belgium Institute of Natural Sciences in Brussels, with many thanks to Caroline Polet for providing us this location.
TBOM: I certainly do remember the Versuvio Cafe, and I think if you had told 16-year-old me that he would be drinking where Kerouac and Ginsberg had drunk in San Francisco, he probably wouldn’t have believed you. (Not to mention visiting the City Lights bookstore and watching an excellent band in a dive bar!). I wish you good luck with your PhD defense, but I’d like to know more about the topics that were discussed in regards to setting up the society.
I’m impressed that your group managed to pull together and contact a full representation of the individuals who are involved with skeletal remains from archaeological contexts in Belgium, but how did you decide what topics to mention and how did you move forward?
MVC: That bookstore was indeed amazing! And the beatnik spirit still surviving in that bar . . . Good memories will never fade away!
We welcomed 11 members at our first meeting, both from Flanders and Wallonia, and decided to communicate in English to facilitate international accessibility. On the other hand, French and Dutch translations on our website will be available too.
Further topics we discussed included the aims of our society:
- To provide information about professionals in the field within Belgium.
- To improve communication in osteological matters, especially between people from the different regions of the country.
- To produce a database of skeletal collections and the relevant institutions that hold the various skeletal collections.
- The legalisation of our society, and whether to become a non-profit society or not, and which steps should be undertaken to achieve that goal.
- Decide on the name and logo of the group itself.
To choose the latter one, an online poll was created, and finally, BOAPAS, or the Belgian Osteoarchaeology & Physical Anthropology Society, came out as the most favoured name for our new society.
Once the name and vision statement were created, we worked on managing and maintaining our visibility. Online visibility comprehends a website with a forum as well as social media profiles such as on Facebook and Twitter. But, there is always room for improvement of course, so we are still working on the design and content of the site itself and how we reach out to individuals and other like-minded societies and organisations.
The site gives an overview of our aims and vision statement (why we are doing it) and ways to contact the group (via email address, possibly via social networks). At a later stage, we would like to include a forum and the database can be linked to it. All details that will be added to the website can be discussed, tested, improved or removed as appropriate. We also created a list of people who are currently available for short or long term assignments, or available in the future, with their photograph and biographical details demonstrating their background and skill sets.
TBOM: I have to say I do adore those business cards, they manage to effectively communicate the message of the aim of the society and the methods used in physical anthropology and osteoarchaeology in a lovely way! So, do you foresee any major areas where you may run into problems in setting up the society?
Aligned to this question, do you, by starting up BOAPAS, hope to bring into existence a firmer framework for osteological studies, within academic research and commercial work, in the Belgian archaeology and anthropology sector?
Hélène Déom (HD): Thank you, those business cards are the result of effective teamwork to create them. We are really proud of them. There are, of course, major problems, as usual, when a society is being set up and they include time, money and legislation. I’d say that is a long shot, but I’m dreaming of creating such a strong framework for osteology in Belgian archaeology… What about you, ladies?
Davina Craps (DC): Thank you for the nice compliment. The business cards are one of the many examples of effective teamwork within BOAPAS. We believe in involving our members as much as possible in the decisions and the running of the society.
We don’t really foresee any major problems, as there is a definite interest in BOAPAS both from the physical anthropologists who are active in Belgium and from the archaeological community itself. One of the smaller issues that we have to deal with is the time it takes to set up a society. All three of the founding members have other obligations aside from the society, thus it can be challenging to create enough free time to spend on the society’s needs. Another issue that we are currently dealing with is how to create a more official platform for BOAPAS to operate from. We are currently looking at legislation when it comes to societies and other options to allow BOAPAS to continue growing.
We are indeed hoping to create a strong framework, where there currently isn’t really one in place. The aim of BOAPAS is to facilitate stronger lines of communication between commercial archaeology, museums, and the physical anthropologists.
MVC: Yes, thanks David for your comments on the cards. I believe the major challenges we are facing right now is sorting out legal issues on non-profit organisations, and who we should contact for external advice regarding this. Setting up a society requires after all a whole procedure we need to take into account. This means in the near future, we have to elect board members such as a president, treasurer, and secretary, and to accomplish this, we hope we can find people with the right amount of time and dedication to work, especially on the further development of our website, FB-page, newsletters, communication on meetings, vacancies, conference calls, etc.
It is very supportive to notice the mainly positive feedback we have received so far, and it is also good to know that the Dutch Association of Physical Anthropologists (the NVFA) has offered to set up joint-events in the near future. I believe it is important to maintain close relationships with our foreign partners, such as British Association of Biological Anthropology and Osteology (BABAO) and the NVFA, as several members (like me) are a member of both societies. Finally, our main goal is indeed to develop a strong and consistent framework in Belgium (this means both Flanders and Wallonia!) in osteology matters. On a later stage, another motivation would be the development of offering osteology courses, for instance within the archaeological training at our universities, but that would be another challenge on the long run.
TBOM: That sounds great about both the future collaboration between The Netherlands and Belgian organisations, and the possible development of offering osteology courses. I always think that tailored osteology short courses can offer both the public and the practitioner alike opportunities to increase their knowledge base, and also remain up to date on the theories and methodologies that inform osteological research, especially so if some form of accreditation can take place.
So, I think I must ask that, having been a member of the British Association of Biological Anthropology and Osteoarchaeology (BABAO) and the Palaeopathology Association, both of which have been around for some time, I’m curious as to why has it taken a while for Belgium to have a osteologically focused society?
MVC: These short courses would be a good start indeed to show the basic principles of osteological research, both in- and ex-situ to principally archaeology students and archaeologists dealing with skeletal remains. Outreach to the general public is currently undertaken through workshops to mainly high school students, or even to children from minority families living in ‘deprived areas’ in Brussels.
Although Belgium has a longstanding and internationally acclaimed tradition in palaeontological studies with the discovery of hominid remains in several caves in Wallonia in the 19th century, it was not until the 1950’s when the study of human bones from an archaeological context advanced here, and this is mainly due to pioneer research from scholars working in the field of medicine. In Flanders, osteological research within an archaeological context have only really developed since the late 1990’s.
A shortage in human osteology studies was also noticed by Leguebe (1983: 28-29) who argued that the expansion of (physical) anthropology in Belgium, compared to other countries, was impeded by a lack in ‘organized teaching ratified by a legal diploma’. In 1919, plans were initiated to found an institution for anthropology studies in Brussels, but, these attempts were unfortunately unsuccessful. Other factors that might influence a deficit in an organised osteology framework are scarce funding and resources, alongside the complex political structure in our country. Belgium has one society, the Royal Belgian Society for Anthropology and Prehistory (RBSAP), founded in 1882, and which co-operates closely with the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences in Brussels.
DC, HD and MVC: Although the RBSAP publishes a yearly bulletin with articles, and organises an annual general meeting, their website (which is only accessible in French) has not been updated since 2010. Further, we believe that the RBSAP is slightly more focused on prehistoric research, which we obviously support since the many findings of fossil remains in Wallonia (e.g. in 2010, the RBSAP organised an excursion to the Spy cave).
In addition, with BOAPAS, we would like to pay attention to osteology studies covering all historic periods from both Wallonia and Flanders, and to offer a vivid platform and discussion forum via social media and our (partially trilingual, but mainly English) website, on current and future research of skeletal remains. We certainly believe in co-operation and the free flow of information, thus we have reached out to the RBSAP to hold a meeting with the organising committee in order to discuss joint possibilities. Perhaps this collaboration between the established values of RBSAP and the fresh, motivated perspective of BOAPAS can truly invigorate the scene of osteology in Belgium.
TBOM: In that case then, I can see why there is a need to set up BOAPAS in order to improve upon the knowledge and research base for osteological studies within Belgium. Please do keep in touch as both myself and my readers would love to know about upcoming events and courses.
MVC: Thank you very much for the discussion! Just to let you and your readers know we do have a collaboration between BOAPAS and the Gallo-Roman Museum in Ath, Belgium, is currently undertaken for an exhibition on funerary traditions, and it is scheduled to open in 2018. And keep an eye on our website at www.boapas.be for upcoming news and events! We are also still looking for volunteers to help out with the design and layout of the site, so please do get in touch if any of your readers are interested and able to help us build the website.
TBOM: Thank you very much for talking with me today, and I wish you all the best of luck with BOAPAS!
Alternatively you can also follow the society on Facebook by searching for Belgian OsteoArchaeology & Physical Anthropology Society – BOAPAS and on Twitter by searching for @Boapas2016.