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A Stone to Throw II: Upcoming Archaeology Conferences

7 Apr

A few dates for the diary as this year sees some pretty exciting archaeology and bioarchaeology themed conferences rolling towards us in the next four months of 2014 or so.  Conferences are fantastic places to learn about new techniques or research approaches in archaeology.  It can also be a thrill watching famed archaeologists and professors speak in the flesh about topics which they are passionate about.  Conferences, depending on their target audience, can sometimes be open to the public and members of academia alike, but they can also vary widely in cost depending on their location, size and prestige.

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Without further ado here are a few conferences that have peaked my interest and some that I hope to attend myself (although Istanbul may have to be missed due to an unfortunate clash with BABAO):

Dearne Valley Archaeology Day 2014, Wath-Upon-Dearne

The community focused Elmet Archaeology group, who were recently mentioned here as a part of an interview with their osteoarchaeologist Lauren McIntyre, are hosting their annual Dearne Valley Archaeology Day in Wath-Upon-Dearne, South Yorkshire, on Saturday the 31st of May.  Open to the members of the public and archaeologists alike, the day long conference costs £18 (£14 unwaged) to attend and boasts a host of speakers on a variety of topics.  The full list of speakers has yet to be announced but so far includes British archaeological stalwarts such as David Connolly of BAJR fame, Prof Joan Fletcher of the University of York and a range of speakers from archaeological units across the country.  There will also be a number of stalls on the day, including information booths on how to illustrate archaeology style by Kate Adelade, Dearne Valley Archaeology Group and a stall with Jenny Crangle detailing the medieval Rothwell Charnel Chapel Project (which has been previously discussed on this blog).   

Exploring Changing Human Beliefs About Death, Mortality and the Human Body, Invisible Dead Project Conference, Durham

The University of Durham is playing host to the Invisible Dead Project conference from Friday 6th of to the Sunday the 8th of June.  The conference has two lectures on the Friday and Saturday nights which are open to the public and two full days of talks for students and academics during the Saturday and Sunday daytime.  The conference is, quite wonderfully, completely free to attend.  The ongoing Invisible Dead Project is a large-scale international collaboration aimed at studying the prehistoric and historic attitudes to death and burial of Britain and the Levant areas.  Information and details of sites under study can be found here at the University of Durham webpage.

The conference welcomes anthropologists, archaeologists and members of the public interested in death and  human remains in prehistory and up contemporary society to attend.  The first public speaker is Prof. Peter Pfälzner, from the University of Tübingen, explaining work carried out on long-term royal funerary processes at Qatna, Syria, on Friday night (6.30pm), whilst Prof Mike Parker Pearson discusses problems and perspectives in funerary archaeology on the Saturday night (6.30pm).  If you are interested in attending the conference forms should be completed before the 30th of April.

British association of Biological Anthropologists and Osteoarchaeologists, Durham

The British Association of Biological Anthropology and Osteoarchaeology are holding their annual conference at the University of Durham in September, from Friday 12th to the Sunday 14th.  The three-day conference will feature a broad range of presentations, talks and posters on the great range and wealth of  osteoarchaeology in Britain and beyond.  The call for papers has just been announced and is open until the 9th of June.  Last year’s conference program can be found here.  Although details have not been released just yet of the costs of attending the conference, it is likely that it will upwards of £140 to attend (based on 2013 BABAO member rates).  The information concerning the 4 sessions has just been released and are based around the following clusters:

1) The body and society: past perspectives on the present

2) Biological anthropology and infectious disease: new developments in understanding from bioarchaeology, palaeoanthropology, primatology, and archaeozoology

3) New developments in biomolecular methods

4) Open session

Details on the key-note speakers for each session can be found here, as can further information on conference guidelines for following abstract guidelines and submission dates.  The BABAO conference is the foundation stone of conferences in the UK osteology calendar as it really does represent the best in current research in the UK and beyond.  Although I have yet to attend one (due to costs), I have high hopes of attending this year’s event in the lovely historic (and local to me) city of Durham.

European Association of Archaeologists, Istanbul

The European Association for Archaeologists host their conference in September, from the Wednesday the 10th to the Sunday the 14th, in Istanbul, Turkey.  The call for papers and posters has now closed, but they did receive a very healthy 2400 submissions in total.  The broad topics of discussion for the 2014 session are categorised into 6 different focus areas including:

1) Connecting seas: across the borders

2) Managing archaeological heritage: past and present

3) Ancient technologies in social context

4) Environment and subsistence: the geosphere, ecosphere and human interaction

5) Times of change: collapse and transformative impulses

6) Retrieving and interpreting the archaeology record

The fees for attending the EAA conference ranges in price from €40 to €180 dependent on category of the applicant (see here for the full extensive list, you are enrolled as a member of the EAA on purchase of conference tickets), but all are welcome to join the conference.  It promises to be an interesting conference with the attendance of some of the most important archaeologists in Europe discussing a wide variety of topics, including a number of speakers discussing human osteology related topics.  Istanbul is also a fantastic place to host a conference positioned as it is between the crossing of the West into the East and vice versa, and boasting a city full of heritage, archaeology and art.

Is Gender Still Relevant? University of Bradford

The British Academy and the University of Bradford are holding a two day event on the question of whether gender is still relevant.  The mini conference runs from Wednesday the 17th to the Thursday the 18th of September and it is free to attend.  Guest speakers include Professor Rosemary Joyce from the University of California and Dr Roberta Gilchrist from the University of Reading, who will discussing sex and gender dichotomies in archaeology.  You can find out more information here and, as far as I am aware, there is still time to submit abstracts for the conference.

No doubt there will be more archaeology and osteology based conferences going on so please feel free to leave a comment below.

Infectious Disease Part 2: Malaria and Associated Anaemic Conditions

5 Oct

This second post, and the first part, deal with biomolecular approaches and research studies in detecting  the presence of infectious diseases in human bone from archaeological material.  The recent coming of age of biomolecular techniques, as applied to archaeological material, has provided a rich and complex source of information in helping to uncover how infectious diseases spread in the historic and prehistoric past.  The second post, here, describes recent research focused on Malaria and associated anaemic conditions, including Sickle Cell Anaemia and Thalassaemia.  The first post can be found here.

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It has long been realised that malaria can only be recognised in skeletal remains via indirect evidence of presentation of the following pathological lesions- porotic hyperostosis, cribra orbitalia and marrow hypertrophy- which are taken as evidence of the presence of anaemia, the main contributor of mortality in malarial victims (Roberts & Manchester 2010).  However there is no pathognomonic bone lesion for either Plasmodium vivax or P. falciparum, the main human species of malaria causing Plasmodium genus  (Gowland & Western 2012: 303, Roberts & Manchester 2010: 233), and the above skeletal lesions have varying aetiologies including anaemia, osteitis, parasitic infection, and other interrelated deficiency diseases which are still not clearly understood (Gowland & Western 2012: 302).  To securely diagnose malaria in skeletal material, DNA identification of the Plasmodium genus must take place, and even then current Polymerase Chain Reaction (PRC) tests ‘do not appear to be able to amplify routinely the DNA of malaria pathogens from ancient bones’ (Gowland & Western 2012: 302).

Recent immunological techniques to identify antigens have also been used to isolate and identify P. falciparum, although false positives can occur as a result of contamination or diagenetic factors(Gowland & Western 2012: 302).  Gowland & Western (2012) have recently proposed a spatial epidemiological model for malarial spread in Anglo-Saxon England, which highlights the re-surging interest in malaria in the modern context as well as one affecting a past population.  This holistic approach used GIS data with diagnosed porotic hyperostosis in skeletal remains, mosquito (Anopheles atroparvus) habitat information and historical data in presenting a locality data set for malaria infected individuals (Gowland & Western 2010: 304-305).  The modelling of palaeopathological, climatic, and historical data, provides new information on disease range, mechanism of transmission, and infection localities.  However, there are also complicating factors in assessing and diagnosing malaria from other diseases, as noted below (Roberts & Manchester 2010: 234).

Particularly important are two inherited haemolytic anaemia’s, thalassaemia and sickle-cell anaemia, who are characterised by abnormal haemoglobin and increased destruction of red blood cells (Jurmain et al. 2011: 312, Roberts & Manchester 2010: 232).  Thalassaemia is a genetically determined disorder which is caused by a ‘problem of haemoglobin synthesis’ (Roberts & Manchester 2010: 233).  This results in failure or depression of synthesis of the chain, this leads to pale cells with low hemoglobin content which are then rapidly destroyed once formed.  There are three grades of the disease, minor, intermediate and major, the last of which includes severe anemia and possible bone changes; the range of the disease is typically centered in the Mediterranean, Middle East and Far East (Roberts & Manchester 2010: 233).  The importance is that it is seen as an adaptive response to malaria infection through the development of this heritable disease; that the high red blood cell turnover stalls and negates any effect of malarial infection.  Archaeological evidences comes from Greek, Turkish and Cypriot populations deriving from marshy contexts, which are ideal breeding grounds for mosquitoes, the prime vector for malaria (Roberts & Manchester 2010: 233).

Sickle-cell anaemia occurs as a result of the deformation and destruction of red blood cells which leads to over enlargement of bony centres (centered on the skull, pelvis, vertebrae) and over-activity of marrow production as the body produces more red blood cells (Waldron 2009).  This inheritable disease range is mainly located in Central and Eastern African populations who have high rates of the disease, but also affects Indian, Middle Eastern, and Southern European populations (Roberts & Manchester 2010: 234).  Jurmain et al. (2011: 312) remark that the sickle-cell allele hasn’t always been effective in malarial negation in human populations, and primarily came to prominence during the advent of agriculture, and in particular during the last 2000 years in Africa.  The origin of the mutation of the allele responsible, HB5 in haemoglobin, has been dated to 2100 to 1250 years ago in African populations (Jurmain et al. 2011: 312).  Although malaria infection has only relatively recently affected human populations, it has become a powerful selective force that still affects large portions of the world’s population today.

In conclusion, biomolecular approaches to archaeological and osteological remains are vital in unraveling past populations and the natural world (Jurmain et al. 2011).  The interactions between wild and domesticated animals, humans, insects and the environment are a prerequisite for understanding the mode of transmission and virulence of infectious diseases (Barnes et al. 2011, Gowland & Western 2012, Jurmain et. al 2011).  Yet, we must take into consideration the difficulties in understanding infectious disease; examples of the osteological paradox are ever present, understanding the aetiology of bone changes, and the context of genetic differences between populations must be noted whilst PCR amplification, aDNA detection and genome explorations methods must be continually improved for clearer results (Li et al. 2011, Schurch et al. 2011, Spigelman et al. 2012, Tran et al. 2011); this approach must be multidisciplinary in understanding past and present populations (Jurmain et al. 2011, Roberts & Manchester 2010, Waldron 2009).

The modern world has changed, and the boundaries that once protected various human populations has changed dramatically with cheap air travel and vast population movement; this is unprecedented in both history and prehistory, and in population density and scale, but also at the genetic level in human genetic variation (Hawks et al. 2007, Jurmain et al. 2011: 311).  The eradication of smallpox, the Bill and Melinda Gates foundation in fighting malaria, and the ongoing WHO (World Health Organisation) case against polio (Branswell 2012: 50) are strong examples of what can be achieved worldwide.  By building a past population profile of the effects of infectious disease, we are better prepared for the fight tomorrow.

Bibliography:

Barnes, I., Duda, A., Pybus, O. G. & Thomas, M. G. 2011. Ancient Urbanization Predicts Genetic Resistance to Tuberculosis. Evolution. 65 (3): 842-848.

Branswell, H. 2012. Polio’s Last Act. Scientific American. 306 (4): 50-55.

Gowland, R. L., & Western, A. G. 2012. Morbidity in the Marshes: Using Spatial Epidemiology to Investigate Skeletal Evidence for Malaria in Anglo-Saxon England (AD 410- 1050). American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 147: 301-311.

Hawks, J., Wang, E. T., Cochran, G. M., Harpending, H. C. & Moyzis, R. K. 2007. Recent Acceleration of Human Adaptive Evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 104 (52): 20753-20758.

Jurmain, R., Kilgore, L. & Trevathan, W. 2011. The Essentials of Physical Anthropology, International Edition. Belmont: Wadsworth.

Li, Y., Carroll, D. S., Gardner, S. N., Walsh, M. C., Vitalis, E. A. & Damon, I. K. 2007. On the Origin of Smallpox: Correlating Variola Phylogenics with Historical Smallpox Record. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. 104 (40): 15787-15792.

Roberts, C. & Manchester, K. 2010. The Archaeology of Disease. Stroud: The History Press.

Schurch, A. C., Kremer, K., Kiers, A., Daviena, O., Boeree, M. J., Siezen, R. J., Smith, N. H., & Soolingen, D. V. 2010. The Tempo and Mode of Molecular Evolution of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis at Patient-to-Patient Scale. Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 10 (1): 108-114.

Spigelman, M., Shin, D. H., & Gal, G. K. B. 2012. The Promise, the Problems and the Future of DNA Analysis in Palaeopathology Studies. In Grauer, A. L. (ed). A Companion to Palaeopathology. Chichester: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.  pp.133-151.

Tran, T., Aboudharam, G., Raoult, D., & Drancourt, M. 2011. Beyond Ancient Microbial DNA: Nonnucleotidic Biomolecules for Palaeomicrobiology. BioTechniques. 50: 370-380.

Waldron, T. 2009. Palaeopathology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.